Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) require wiring. All LCDs feature a pixel layer consisting of a liquid organic material. Depending on the resolution, it may have 6 million or more individual pixels. LCDs leverage these pixels to produce images. They must be wired, however, to function as intended.
Vertical and Horizontal Wires
If you were to open an LCD, you’ll discover a network of vertical and horizontal wires. Most LCDs feature vertical wires on one side of the screen and horizontal wires on the other side.
The pixels in an LCD require a positive connection and a negative connection. They’ll receive these connections from the appropriate wire network. The vertical wires, for instance, may be used as the positive connections, whereas the horizontal wires may be used as the negative connections.
Active vs Passive-Matrix LCDs
Of course, there are different types of LCDs. While most LCDs use a combination of vertical and horizontal wires, they are available in different types. The two most common types of LCDs include active matrix and passive matrix.
Passive-matrix is an older LCD technology. Passive-matrix LCDs feature a grid of conductors consisting of vertical and horizontal wires. They are designed to form a single transistor at the intersection of each row and column. The wires used in passive-matrix LCDs are typically made of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).
Active-matrix LCDs are newer than passive-matrix LCDs. Like passive-matrix LCDs, they feature a grid of conductors consisting of vertical and horizontal wires. The difference is that active-matrix LCDs can control their pixels individually by switching them on or off, whereas passive-matrix LCDs can not
Active-matrix LCDs can further be classified as twisted nematic (TN), in-plane switching (IPS), super in-plane switching (S-IPS) or vertical alignment (VA). Regardless, they can all control their pixels individually. Active-matrix LCDs are more advanced than their passive-matrix counterparts. They can control each pixel individually. Active-matrix LCDs usually support more colors, have a higher resolution and have a faster response time than passive-matrix LCDs.
LCDs leverage a network of wires to power their pixels. There are active-matrix LCDs, and there are passive-matrix LCDs. The former can control their pixels individually by switching them on or off, whereas the latter can not. Regardless, all LCDs have a network of wires. They typically have vertical wires on one side of the screen and horizontal wires on the opposite side of the screen. When combined, these wires form a grid-like network of conductors.